Ask to Dr. Andro: the pharmacokinetics of the creatine (part I / II)-how is creatine absorbed in the torrent blood?

figure 1: there are a lot of things that could potentially go wrong with the absorption of creatine: creatine from dietary sources could be absorbed by the evil (1) in the intestine, (2) is not made in the cell, or (3) be too easily excreted either before or immediately after was transported into the muscle.

question of Lerner (via comments): make transporters of creatine is behave of the same as conveyors of the glucose? (I.e., serum insulin binds to cellular insulin receptors, causing carriers to migrate from the inside of the cell plasma membrane – and then pull in external glucose transporters.)

response Dr. Andro: as you may have noticed, I took the freedom to establish the student’s question in a wider context. A context brought to collation in my thesis doctoral product of creatine new athletic edge nutrition RT creatine on Tuesday, 16 of August of 2011. Thus, the questions will attempt to answer (unfortunately, I have to rely on existing studies and not my own lab, here 😉 are as follows:

  1. how does creatine in the blood?)
  2. how does creatine in muscle? (cf. part II)
  3. what can influence in these processes?

taking into account that this is an extensive topic, I decided to tackle it in two part series , where in part 1 (today) I will focus on the question of the absorption of creatine in the blood, a so-called problem smart the supplement industry researchers claim to have solved, already. creatine ethyl ester malate of creatine, citrate of creatine, creatine HCL, creatine is which is and Krealkalyn (TM) … are the names of the “solutions” to the alleged inferiority of the monohydrate of creatine, them shelves of your history supplement local have that offer.

how to get creatine in your blood?

in essence all these esters, acids, chlorides and others «creatine + X»-combinations have been designed for Cup you… ah, I mean to increase the amount of creatine that makes in the torrent blood, or in other words, to increase bioavailability . There are now, as State of Wesley Mc Call and Adam Persky in chapter 13 creatine and creatine kinase in health and disease , four possible reasons why bioavailability of creatine could be less than 100%, in the first place:

  1. degradation [](to creatinine) 19459014 in the stomach insufficient
  2. dissolution, i.e. , passing them problems of the intestines “without resolve”

  3. with the absorption of creatine by them cells epithelial
  4. the degradation by

of bacterium intestinal 1. Creatine can degrade is when reaches the stomach:

knows with certainty that degradation of creatine is maximum at pH 3 ( canon. 1927 , see is Figure 1). Now, a stomach healthy must have a pH of 1 and 84 years all the world (supplement producers included) would have been capable of take a look to them data of the study of 1927 by the canon and Costa, that found that 25 h after in a solution with a pH of 1 only ~ 2% of the creatine would have “gradient” in your product of dehydration of the creatinine and that the often cited “breakdown” of monohydrate of creatine in the mean acid of the stomach not is really a problem, after all.

figure 1: percentage creatinine in solution of creatine pure previously after 25, 50, 125 and 1903 h to a certain pH (adapted from canon. 1927 ) of data.

on the other hand, the data in Figure 1 show clearly that have to take creatine until you would a statistically significant difference sit in your stomach for more than 2 h (25 h: pH1 = 2%, pH6 = 2%; 125 h ph1 = 9%, pH6 = 3%) If your stomach had a pH of 1 or a pH that is greater 6. Now, that certainly sounds ridiculously long, still in conjunction with food (Mc. 2008 ringtone ) and out of the Petri dish these effects are, as we are about to see below, still physiological relevant.

image 2: you probably expect that it is not advisable to take creatine with a Big Mac, but I would have guessed who played against are listed, as well?

would know that the ingestion of a food drastically increases the PH of the stomach? Dressman, et to the report an increase to pH ~ 6 after eating a hamburger and a glass of milk ( Dressman. 1990 ). after no more than 30 minutes, however, the gastric secretion had reduced pH 4-3 and after about 90 minutes, the stomach of the themes was the same “acid pit” (pH 1.3) as it was prior to the ingestion of food. This goes to say that take creatine with them meals or even worse to it right after a meal could be indicated in .

Council: best wait at least 90 minutes after its last l mea , before running by your creatine water , as even the presence of hydrates of carbon of juices is has shown that “delay the time to the peak of concentration”, that usually is less than 2 h and to decrease the concentration maximum in the peak of concentration ( called of Mc. 2008 ). However, what no doubt want to avoid, is a pH between 3-4. However, even in this “worst” scenario less than 10% of the creatine you would experience the (at most pH partly reversible!) reaction of creatine to creatinine . Thus, Mc Call and Persky designated, the “relatively short time passes Creatine really in the middle of the stomach that very little of the oral dose of creatine should be lost ” ( call of Mc. 2008 )-at least if taken in a vacuum (and healthy, that is to say, highly acidic) stomach.

2. Creatine (monohydrate) could not dissolve and therefore not absorbed

figure 2: Creatine is taken by the enterocytes in the jejunum and illeum the.

dissolved crystals of Creatine monohydrate, has been discussed in bulletin boards and announcements of several supplement companies since the first “Advanced” creatine products hit the market. However, while is beyond debate to enterocytes of the small intestine (rats have found creatine to be absorbed in the ileum ( pear. 2005 ) and jejenum (2004 Tosco. ), cf. image 2) cannot absorb the bulky crystals creatine, solubility in water at 20° C Creatine monohydrate is 14 g/l to a neutral pH of 7 .
Now, with higher temperatures and lower pHs (as mentioned before his stomach must have a pH of approximately 1-2 and his body temperature is obviously ~ 37° C) is absolutely unlikely that creatine is not dissolved. Use creatine, that citrate, due to its low pH (solution has pH 3.5), has a 1.5 x higher solubility, or other highly soluble forms of creatine is not therefore necessary, if your stomach is the hole hot acid is supposed to be.

Interestingly, a study by Harris et to the suggests that creatine meat as the rice paddies of the hamburger in the image 2 (I’m assuming here that there is still some meat in McDonald’s hamburgers / here in Germany have begun advertising the quality of their meat 😉 is more easily absorbed (refers to absolute amounts) (, not for the course of the time) whether creatine suspended (= more creatine in the water which can be solved) in water or creatine tablets / tablets (2002 Harris. ). A likely explanation for this phenomenon might be that creatine with security is contained in the flesh , until the latter is by enzymes that are activated as it is decreasing the pH of the stomach. Thus, only a very limited number of free creatine will be exposed to levels of pH in the range of detrimental3-4.

3. Creatine can simply not be taken by those enterocitos in the intestine slim

obviously, any problem digestive general related with the transpoRTE of nutrients through the epithelial barrier in the intestine can compromise the absorption of creatine, as well. As mentioned previous have demonstrated the presence of amounts of large (180 g) of hydrates of carbon to slow the emptying gastric and therefore the absorption of creatine , considerably ( Vist. 1995 ). In addition several other food components can also increase the pH temporarily and as well initially decrease solubility (when the pH is still very high) and consequently increase the creatine to creatinine breakdown (when the pH goes 3-4 range critique, see above).

4. Creatine can be degradEd by bacteria in the intestine

image 2: tongum Biridobacterium is a probiotic and a natural enemy of the putrefective bacteria, which “asphyxiate” lactic acid, acetic acid and bacteriocins ( image)

Although creatine survives the passage through the stomach dissolves and the enerocytes are ready to absorb it, still could be taken by bacteria putrefective (bacteria that break down organic material) of William C. Rose in a role in the annual report of biochemistry. writes that they become methylhydantoin, who had previously demonstrated performance sarcosine under the influence of the micro-organisms “( rosa. 1933) unless you want sarcosine Patrick Arnolds creatine as a d-aspartic acid attached to (as in 2 ) TestForce, I would say that this is another good reason to keep your gut clean and tidy ;-)”

conclusion: the absorption not must be a problem

If your bowel is healthy, acid and free of pathogenic amounts of bacteria putrefective there is absolutely no reason could have problems to absorb the creatine-especially if us stick to my recommendations and

  • increase not only them dose more beyond of 5 g
  • take creatine on an empty stomach (or at least 90 min after your last meal) *
    ( take creatine with carbohydrate + proteins will increase rupture to the creatinine and decrease in the maximum levels of the serum, but , by contrast, will increase the retention of muscle creatine, cf. part II )
  • to do not take creatine with a food or protein or large amounts of carbohydrates carbon *
    (read more in the carb issue in the 2nd part this installment of ‘Ask Dr. Andro’ tomorrow)

a tweak to this general guideline meets the “mysterious” theme of alkaline creatine. The results of the study Cannon show that you has the option:

  • increase the pH of the stomach more beyond of 6, or
  • decrease the pH of the stomach below 2

if wants to avoid the degradation of the creatine to creatinine.

figure 2: relative increase in creatine dry muscle mass of horses, after supplementation with Creatine monohydrate , kre-alkalyn or Gastner patented creatine sodium carbonate + formula of sodium hydrogen carbonate ( Gastner. 2010 )

creatine time away from meals would be option #2 option #1, on the other hand, would imply that it complemented a strong agent alkalizing as sodium or potassium bicarbonate and in fact, this is exactly what KreAlkalyn, is the so-called “Super creatine” – a product of ph buffer Creatine monohydrate. Thomas Gastner holds the patent to formula that had greater stability than the KreAlkalyn and consists of nothing but 2.98 g Creatine monohydrate + 150mg sodium carbonate sodium carbonate 118mg hydrogen. According to one same-led to conducted experiments animals (horses = the greater stability was an improvement statistically significant in the retention of creatine muscle after 4 weeks in creatine enriched of power pellets (+ 7% of monohydrate of creatine and + 10% on KreAlkalyn).)

image 3: Kre-Alkalyn – expensive, but probably
vain – at least when taken with food.

the results of the experiment of Gastner obviously should be taken with some skepticism. However, the image that are seeing here is conclusive, because or that depends on of it acidity stomach (using monohydrate of creatine normal) or put enough alkaline neutralizes in its product so the acidity of the stomach continues being greater to pH 6 for a sufficient amount of time. With Kre-Alkalyn (and the stomach of the horse) seems that Jeffrey Gollini who has the patent for it KreAlkalyn managed to hit exactly that more unfavorable range of pH , where the pH total of them food + KreAlkalyn solution in the stomach (horse-) falls again in the range of 3-4 very quickly and the absorption of creatine is reduces due to the growing decomposition of the creatine to creatinine. in summary, this is points of a clear victory of monohydrate creatine taken on an empty stomach (or, alternatively with a significant amount of reserves + food). Tinker with citrates, malatos and esters that eventually be cleaved (if have bad luck in the same time the pH gastric has returned to the “area of danger” of 3-4), can be promotional, but either not is likely that is superior (citrate, malate and co) or is has shown (creatine ethyl ester, CF. Spillane. 2009 ) lower to the monohydrate of creatine of undefeated ‘ honcho ‘ .

click here to read the part II: how come the creatine in the muscle “Ask to Dr. Andro: the pharmacokinetics of the creatine (part I / II)-how is creatine absorbed in the torrent blood? ” is replublished article from

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