Exercise Intensity, Oxidative Damage, Glycogen Depletion and Supercompensation. Plus: Optimal 0-12h Post Workout Glycogen Repletion Protocol For Performance Athletes

intensity are trained at the right intensity and what is to right What is right , anyway? A lot of questions, a lot of words, a couple of answers and some interesting revelations second article in today’s SuppVersity Exercise Science Week .

This is day 2 of SuppVersity Exercise Science Week – Another day, another news. After you have learned about the different mechanisms by which exercise induce structural changes in their beer belly, lover handles and other problem areas and unproblematic in first article yesterday of SuppVersity exercise Science Week post today itself actually paid up on the idea of ​​the superiority of high-intensity exercise and check out the low vs high (er) intensity resistance effects exercise of antioxidant defense system of the body. This will lead us to a problem that was once considered a disadvantage of high intensity workouts: his notoriety to deplete muscle glycogen, which we now know is actually one of its key strengths. When we’re done with that, it’s time for sweet dessert. The latter will have three fields and help you achieve maximum supercompensation muscle glycogen after a workout.

Where does the idea that it is better to exercise at low intensities come from?

I left in a (unnerving?) Habit of including a small reminder of the “dark side” the same effort with beneficial exercise that causes muscle gains, fat loss and improvements in conditioning and overall health can have, whenever you do not allow for adequate recovery and nutrient supply in almost all items of pointing to the superiority of high intensity training versus training in the comfort zone ( click here to read about a couple of these items).

Figure 1: A comprehensive study by Carey revealed that increasing the proportion of fat Total calories for energy ependiture, when training in the “fat burning zone” is 3% for men, 5% for women. The total amount of fat is even more above the “zone” and , most importantly, current research suggests that the glycolytic effect, which is inversely related to fat oxidation relative, is triggers most of the benefit metabolic effects.

The question, how pronounced the differences are in fact on the contrary, is not only rarely addressed here SuppVersity , it is also something that scientists are still trying to figure out. Usually, see creatine kinase, a marker accepted skeletal muscle damage that is accessed before and after a workout, but as I pointed out in previous articles , my personal experience tells me that an intense workout strength is – despite its ability to increase levels of CK in noops training for up to 10,000% (x100, no typo – .. eg Sewright 2008) less likely to send you into the abyss of triad athlete, to work out for hours (worst case on a daily basis) in the intended area fat burning , ie, the ideal heart rate where you can meet most of their metabolic body fat and that Carey was able to show in the corridors “relatively fit” male and female is at least 30% below the anaerobic threshold (aT demands: 155Hb / min; fat Burning Zone 105Hb :. / min; cf. Carey 2009).

Apart from that, the results also support the observation Carey Wilson et al. formulated in its recent review of concurrent training, namely, that “the most dramatic loss in fat mass occurr [s] moderately high to very high intensity” (Wilson. 2012). In this context, the definition of scientists from “moderately high” is already far beyond the supposed zone of maximum fat loss. “Dramatic” is certainly also an excellent attribute to the effect 4.5x greater fat loss Wilson et al. calculated for the highest versus exercise intensities medium (91-100% vs. 61-80% HRmax) based on the data collected for review.

“It is better fat loss, w / high intensity, aha … but not at the cost of increased oxidation?”

In view of the fact that he will return to the issue of the “optimal fat loss” later this week , anyway, I guess it is better get back to the topic at hand and take a look at the work of high performance at different exercise intensities actually take in their antioxidant defense system figure. As mentioned before, it is still far from certain what markers actually have to measure to get a clear picture of the amount of stress and damage a particular exercise regime is inflicting. Compared with creatine kinase levels, measuring markers of activity and status of the antioxidant defense system, which was the primary outcome variable in a study by Takahashi et al. however, there seem to be more relevant. – If not with regard to the exercise of performance that no doubt as to the overall health and metabolic

Figure 2: Changes in myeloperoxidase, heart rate, frequency percepciónel effort and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TAEC) in eight healthy men and untrained age of 22.6 ± of 1 4 years (Mean ± SD), with the body mass of 67.7 ± 4.1 kg, 175.2 ± 3.7 cm, y15,1 ± 2.2% body fat after 20 minutes of exercise 70%, 100% or 130% of the anaerobic threshold.

On three separate occasions, Japanese researchers studied the effect of different exercise intensities. The latter ranged from 70% to over 100% to 130% of the anaerobic threshold and therefore represent the exercise of the “fat burning zone” moderately high intensity and high intensity.

The first was that scientists recorded to the pre post increased oxidative stress in the low mean intensity and even reach significance estadística.Los “pro-oxidant” test effects of high intensity, on the contrary , they were statistically significant. However, if you look at the actual data of Figure 2 , I suppose you want – like me – ask yourself what all the fuss was about: The absolute differences are mediocre at best and physical significance not statistically is highly questionable; and that is not due only to the equivalent antioxidant capacity Trolox (TEAC) actually increased from pre to post exercise (levels pre supposedly inferior in test 130% before the other stress tests.

Training at higher intensities is demanding, yes … but not require openly!

Now, all these statistical significances were calculated on a pre vs post basis. no differences were observed specific intensity on the other side. therefore, we must be careful not to misinterpret own scientists and indeed conclusion that does not judge …

“we found that plasma concentrations of d-ROMs increased as a result of 20 minutes of exercise over aT. previous year aT also it increased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity. Moreover, there was no effect after 20 min of exercise at 70- 100% aT, suggesting exercise under the AT level not harmful oxidative stress. ” (Takahashi. 2013)

… As a tip to stick to “exercise under the AT [anaerobic threshold]”. There are too many people waste their time on cross training this word -. Not join them, but do not push too well

The “ Solution Iranian Interview ” has already shown that a Interview regime minimalist as sessions sprint 3x200m week can make all the difference esp. for someone who has never participated in regular activity before ( read more ).

One session intense exercise leads to significant improvements in glucose and lipid metabolism in obese individuals, that is the ultimate result of another very recent study carried out in University of Glasgow (Whyte. 2013). The protocol consisted of nothing more than “four top 30-s sprints with recovery between each 4.5min (Interview), or a maximum single extended speed (HIT) paired with HIIT for work done”. With a 20% higher average power during the sprints of the temporal intensity it was higher, in view of the fact that the total exercise duration was longer and there was no time for entries between glycogen replenishment sprint. It Thu actually is not surprising that the sharp increase in insulin sensitivity reached statistical significance only after the session extended sprint. general metabolic benefits (no significant improvements in glucose and lipid metabolism) on the day after, which we can assume were not implemented by the immediate reduction of muscle glycogen, were identical for both conditions, while total and relative increase fat oxidation fasting was most pronounced after Interview (total: 63% and 38% relative, based on RER :. 11% and 8%) protocol

Figure 3: .. oxidative stress and depletion of glycogen are important triggers for the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism glucose ((based on Kawanaka 2012)

If we go a step further and think about whether oxidative stress is actually something to be avoided at all costs, the figure of the recently published together with the revision of the regulation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle during and after exercise (see Kentaro Kawanaka figure 3 ) can help us make up our minds. If you check out my margins it is easy to see that production of ROS and increased AMP (quasi “that ATP uses”) and decreases in ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) are important signals for activation of a so far incompletely understood signaling cascade resulting in increased uptake of glucose by muscle. That’s the same absorption of glucose by the way that makes the most significant difference between “normal” individual and insulin-intolerant and makes an ideal springboard for full-fledged DIABESITY (= obesity + diabetes type II).

“So what exactly is the effect size of these improvements? Is the value of sweating?

To illustrate the amount of these effects, Kawanaka uses data from a study conducted in 2009 by Koshinaka et al. that rats underwent an acute bout of 3x20s “high intensity sprint swimming interal” and levels of muscle glycogen and glucose transport measured at different time points in the window of 16 hours after training.

Figure 4: Insulin and not stimulated insulin transport glucose epitrochlearis rat muscle at rest and 4 hours after cessation of exercise HIIT (left); replenishing muscle glycogen and supercompensation after a workout (Kawanaka. 2012 based on Koshinaka. 2009)

If we consider that 3 hours (!) of continuous swimming raised the same improvement in the exact uptake glycogen as all out “sprints” that 3x20s probably do not have to say “seems” as if the synergistic combination of short HI (I) training T and proper diet to be more productive than endless hours in an elliptical shape too (unfortunately often women) apprentices still made in the desperate hope of finally shed the fat of any problem area that have or believe ‘d have.

glycogen overcompensation: This is how it is done

There is still further study Koshinika another confirmation of the usefulness of the exercise HI T (I) for loss fat, fitness and health fabulous. Data Koshinaka et al. collected but also tells us something about glycogen replenishment after training. The most important (at least in my humble opinion) that the first phase of post-exercise, immediately characterized by a rapid increase in non-insulin dependent in glucose uptake. The latter is actually as high (> 5μmol / g / 20 min; data respective not shown in Figure 4 ) and consumption of maximum glucose measured in phase II, during which the presence of insulin has a dependent beneficial effect of dose on the total amount of glucose to be transported into the muscle (see figure 4 , left). With Phase III is characterized by saturated (more saturated done) glycogen, these observations suggest that a protocol reset “optimal” glycogen would look something like this:

    When calorie intake in a higher, better go very high in carbohydrates + low fat is increased, if the meager profits are what you are looking for. This is at least what a 2011 study of Mendes-Netto suggests ( Read more )
  1. Phase I: immediate post> quick source of carbohydrate absorption – what is important in the phase of post-workout immediately is only the availability of glucose, insulin presence of a high extra insulin levels is more or less unnecessary
  2. Second phase: phase of post-training (<8h) > source of carbohydrates of high GI – once the glycogen levels have reached a certain level process supercompensation requires the presence of additional insulin, therefore, your post-workout meal should not be in carbohydrate-free or very low GI
  3. phase III: recovery phase (> 8 h )> source of carbohydrates with low GI – glycogen stores have already reached higher than the reference levels, the presence of high insulin levels at this stage would be counterproductive, as it would be in actually drive the uptake of glucose by adipose tissue, not muscle tissue

If this protocol maximum glycogen replenishment actually makes sense for everyone is another matter, however. For someone who trains twice a day, as Arnold, it is indeed. Ditto for endurance athletes seeking optimal performance. If Lance Armstrong, for example, can never compete again, it would be better to go to a source of carbohydrates rapid absorption as Vitargo right after the race, a huge plate pasta and some sweetened grape juice as their first meal after the race and some slow carbohydrates to digest as a couple of glasses of oats later that day to ensure optimal levels of glycogen in the next day back – which neither spear, nor should not forget, however, is add some protein equation, but building muscle is not your goal, the protein will accelerate the replenishing muscle glycogen (Zawadski. 1992)

“But the important thing is muscle glycogen, anyway?”

For the average student does still remain questionable whether or not this protocol actually produce noticeable benefits. While it is important to repletar glycogen stores, the benefits of doing this as quickly as possible in reality are not really relevant for someone who trains 3-4 times a week in order to promote health, wellness and more thinner, more muscular (but not extravagant) physical. Especially with regard to the latter, most recent studies strongly suggest that muscle protein synthesis is in the short term not affected by low levels of muscle glycogen ( Click here for more information ).

What should never be forgotten, however, it is that your body will interpret the chronically low muscle and liver glycogen levels as an indicator of clear cut starves. The results are a reduced metabolic rate and closing the body “helper” and costly functions such as reproductive machinery, etc.? – And I do not want that to happen, just


  • Kawanaka K. The regulation of glucose transport in skeletal muscle during and after exercise. 2012. J Med Phys Fitness Sports, 1 (4): 563-572.
  • Koshinaka K, Kawasaki E, F Hokari, Kawanaka K. Effect of acute intermittent high intensity swimming exercise on after insulin sensitivity in rats fed epitrochlearis. Metabolism. 2009; 58 :. 246-253
  • Takahashi H, K Suzuki, Matoba H, S Sakamoto, Obara S. Effects of different intensities of resistance exercise on oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. J Med Phys Fitness Sports. 2013 1 (1): 183-189
  • Sewright KA, Hubal MJ, Kearns A, Holbrook MT, Clarkson PM.. Enrespuesta sex differences eccentric maximal exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008Feb; 40 (2):. 242-51
  • Whyte LJ, Ferguson C, J Wilson, Scott RA, JM Gill. Effects of single deejercicio series high intensity on biomarkers of metabolic health in overweight / sedentary obesidadhombres. Metabolism. 2013 Feb; 62 (2): 212-9
  • Wilson JM, Marin PJ, Rea MR, Wilson SM, Loenneke JP, JC Anderson.. Concurrenteformación: A meta-analysis examining interference aerobic and resistenciaceremonias. J Strength Cond Res 2012 Aug.; 26 (8): 2293-307.
  • Zawadzki KM, 3rd Yaspelkis BB, Ivy JL. complex carbohydrates and proteínasaumenta the rate of muscle glycogen storage after exercise. J ApplPhysiol. 1992 May; 72 (5): 1854-9.

“Exercise Intensity, Oxidative Damage, Glycogen Depletion and Supercompensation. Plus: Optimal 0-12h Post Workout Glycogen Repletion Protocol For Performance Athletes” is replublished article from suppversity.blogspot.com here: http://suppversity.blogspot.com/2013/01/exercise-intensity-oxidative-damage.html