Diseases Measles is highly contagious disease, characterized by fever, cough, conjunctivitis ( conjunctival inflammation of the lining of the eye / conjunctiva) and skin rash. Measles is caused by infection with measles virus paramyxovirus type. transmission of the measles virus is produced by inhalation spray measles saliva. People with measles can spread the measles virus within 2-4 days before the onset of skin rashes and 4 days after the eruption there. Before the measles vaccine is widely used, measles outbreaks occur every 2-3 years, especially in preschool and elementary school children age. If someone has had the disease, then the rest of their lives will be immune to measles.
The causes of measles
Measles (Morbilli, rubella, measles or red) is an infectious disease that is highly contagious period (infectious) early prodrome, ie, on the order of the first 4 days of the onset of the rash. Measles it is caused paramyxoviruses (measles virus). transmission of the measles virus occurs through saliva splashes nose, mouth and throat with measles (water base). The incubation period is 10-14 days before symptoms appear measles.
immunity against measles, obtained after vaccination and active infection. Passive immunity obtains a born of mothers who have immune (lasts 1 year) baby. People who are susceptible to measles are :. Babies older than 1 year, babies who are not immunized against measles, adolescents and young adults who have not been immunized against the second Measles
the appearance of the first symptoms of measles occurred approximately one to two weeks after contracting the virus. These symptoms disappear approximately two weeks thereafter. The following is the initial symptoms that are experienced by people with measles:
- red eyes and sensitivity to light.
- Symptoms resemble a common cold such as sore throat, dry cough and runny nose.
- Limp and exhausted.
- high fever.
- aches and pains.
- apathy and loss of appetite.
- Diarrhea and / or vomiting.
- small grayish-white spots in the mouth and throat.
The measles rash appears later than four days after the first symptoms and the estimated duration of seven days. Initially emerge from behind the ears, then it spreads to the head and neck, and eventually the rest of the body. Initially, the detection of small, but grow quickly before patches were merged.
should contact a doctor immediately, or nearest clinic if you suspect your child has measles hospital. The diagnosis of measles can be done by looking at a combination of symptoms that appear and through a saliva sample test.
Measles can lead to complications that can be fatal, although this is very rare. Infants and children with severe to be the most susceptible to measles malnutrition group. Besides them, people who suffer from poor immune diseases are also more vulnerable to recruitment. For example, patients with AIDS, cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and patients with chronic diseases. Children older than 12 months and healthy, rarely have complications unconditioned.
Below is a complication that can occur measles shown:
- Seizures caused by fever.
- eye infections
- middle ear infections.
- infections of the airways and lungs, such as pneumonia and bronchitis.
- Inflammation of the vocal cords.
Regarding the complications of measles they are less common are:
- Inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord or meningitis.
- Brain infection or encephalitis.
- squint due to the impact of the virus on the nerves and muscles of the eye.
- hepatitis or liver infection.
- problems in the nervous system and heart.
- The optical neuritis, or inflammation of the optic nerve that can cause permanent blindness
The human immune system naturally fight measles virus infection. There is no specific drug to treat measles. The condition of patients usually get better without treatment within one to two weeks. Before the fighting immune system against viral infections, the condition of the body at first be uncomfortable due to symptoms experienced measles. There are several ways you can help the immune system in the fight against measles virus
1. Increase fluid intake: Dale lot water to avoid dehydration in children. Water consumption can also relieve itching throat due to cough. Remember that when the body has a fever, the need for fluid increases.
2. The control fever and relieve pain: Check with your doctor to determine which medication is rules dosage and expiry more appropriate. In general, for adults who have fever and pain, you may be given acetaminophen or ibuprofen. You can give paracetamol in liquid form for your child.
3. Overcoming eye pain that occurs: Use a cotton cloth soaked in water to clean the dirt in the eyes during measles infection. Eyes with measles will become more sensitive to light. To overcome this, close the window with curtains or replacement of adjustable lights at night.
4. Treatment of other symptoms: There will probably appear similar symptoms, such as runny nose or cough. You can consume a hot drink to relieve these symptoms. In addition, therapy can Vapours. For young children, you can bathe in warm water. Hot drinks containing lemon and honey can be given to young children. Note, for children under one year old should not be given honey.
5. Consider the occurrence of serious diseases: be aware of the appearance of the complications that can arise when the body is fighting infection. The signs of the onset of a more serious condition is:
- Difficult waking consciousness or decreased
- The symptoms of dehydration, such as dry mouth and lack of frequency of urination
- coughing up blood
- difficult to breathe
- chest pain, especially when breathing
the best way to prevent measles is to receive the vaccine since childhood. There are two options for vaccination against measles. A special measles vaccine given at the age of 9 months, 2 years and 6 years. This is the type of measles vaccine are included in the compulsory immunization by the governing council. While measles vaccination incorporated into the MMR vaccine, given at 15 months and again at age 5-6 years. MMR vaccine is a combined vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella.
A newborn baby will have antibodies against measles if the mother had suffered from disease or been vaccinated against measles before pregnancy. These antibodies provide protection for the first months. vaccine against measles or MMR special occurs when the baby is more than half a year.
Both types of vaccines against measles before, not recommended for pregnant women in a state that has not been protected against measles. But for women who wish to become pregnant and have never been exposed to measles, which could be vaccinated against measles . Consult your doctor for more information about measles and its effects on pregnant women.
Measles is highly contagious. If you are suffering from measles, avoid crowded center at least four days after the onset of measles rash first time. This is important to prevent the spread of infection to others. Avoid direct contact with people who are susceptible to viral, such as infants, young children and pregnant women infections. You are reading: Measles: symptoms, causes and treatment