Diseases nicotine One of the substances in cigarettes are known to cause side effects or risks for harmful health is nicotine. The time that nicotine is in the smoker’s body system? Most nicotine consumed (or about 90 percent), rapidly metabolized by the liver and then excreted by the kidneys. The remaining amount of nicotine remains in the bloodstream for 6-8 hours after smoking. Most adult smokers, surely admit that the effects of cigarette addiction feel when they are under the age of 21 years.
The snuff is one of the nicotine source material has a long history. Nicotine (Nicotiana tabacum) was found and began to be cultivated in the United States in early 6000 BC, and since then people have been smoking or chewing the leaves of plants. Snuff consumption has been invited controversial even at the beginning of its use.
Only 10 seconds after a smoker inhales the cigarette smoke, nicotine is absorbed through the skin and mucous membrane of the nose, mouth and lungs, and moves through the bloodstream to the brain. It stimulates the adrenal glands to produce adrenaline, hormones and neurotransmitters such as adrenaline considered. This increases heart rate and blood pressure while constricting the blood vessels, also it stimulates the production of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that controls the brain center of happiness. Inhaling nicotine provide the fastest effect and not a coincidence because their lungs fill with millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli.
The alveoli have a very large surface area, more than 40 times the surface area of ?? their skin so that the lungs are the most effective in incorporating nicotine into the bloodstream mode. Nicotine simply stay in the body for several hours, about one or two hours, which means that six hours after smoking, only about 1 milligram 0031 milligrams of nicotine left.
Nicotine can also be absorbed through the digestive tract and skin. Here is how snuff smokeless products such as chewing snuff, which stick to the skin and give nicotine gum roads in the body. Once absorbed by the body, an enzyme in the liver breaks most of nicotine, 80 percent. Then he became metabolite cotinine. Nicotine is also metabolized to cotinine and nicotine oxide lungs. Cotinine and other metabolites excreted in the urine and also found in saliva and hair. Cotinine is the body about 16 hours, which means that if you have been smoking, metabolites can be used as a biomarker to prove that consumed in a urinalysis.
Why a smoker might want to smoke when they are in a state of unpleasant mood or in a stressful situation? This is because nicotine can make people feel calmer, causing a feeling of relaxation and stress reduction, anxiety and even pain.
Although it appears relaxation, nicotine actually increases the physical stress, the impact is considered slightly paradoxical. This relates to support the central nervous system, but depending on the dose, as found in some smokers nicotine also acts as a sedative. Some studies suggest that smoking may cause a calming effect, because nicotine is actually considered a stimulant, not a depressant.
The first time you inhale cigarette, nicotine causes the body to release the hormone epinephrine, a hormone nature of the fight or escape. Active adrenaline sympathetic nervous system, making your breathing becomes rapid and shallow increased heart rate and increased blood pressure.
Nicotine can also cause sensitivity to insulin and insulin resistance and an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It also affects the thyroid hormone, pituitary hormones, sex hormones and adrenal hormones. insulin resistance in smokers, for example, may be partly because nicotine stimulates the body to produce high levels of adrenal androgens, in other words, nicotine affects the body’s metabolism of glucose, causing hyperglycemia and hyperglycemia associated with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance not only increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, but also heart disease.
The effects of nicotine in the brain
Exposure to nicotine can alter the performance and functions of your brain. Imagine your brain as a computer. As computers in general, the brain as a processor, storage and use of information. In a computer, the information is in the form of electrical signals moving through the cable, send the information in a binary process, with switches on or off. In the brain, neurons are the cells that transfer and integrate information. Each neuron receives information from thousands of other neurons throughout the brain, process information and make necessary adjustments before delivering the message to the rest of the body. While the signal is transmitted via individual neurons as an electric current, a group of chemical process called neurotransmitters which transmit such messages between neurons and other cells.
Nicotine also stimulates the release of other neurotransmitters, namely glutamate. Glutamate is involved in learning and memory, as well as improving relations between groups of neurons. strong connections can be a physical basis we call memory, and when used nicotine, glutamate may create a memory loop pleasant feelings you get and further drive the desire to consume nicotine.
Nicotine also increases levels of neurotransmitters and other chemicals that modulate the functioning of your brain. For example, the brain becomes more endorphins in response to nicotine. Endorphins are small proteins that are often referred to as a natural analgesic body. It turns out that very similar chemical structure to synthetic painkillers like morphine endorphins function. You are reading: Negative effects of nicotine human