Similar brain disorders through many emotional disturbances

Brain disruptions similar across many emotional disorders

Dr. Scott Langenecker, Dr. Olusola Ajilore and Lisanne Jenkins pose in front of an image of the brain in the Electronic Visualization Laboratory at UIC. Credit: Vibhu Rangavasan.

Researchers have long known that emotional disorders have much in common. Many often occur at the same time as depression and social anxiety disorder. The treatments also tend to work across multiple disorders, suggesting shared underlying elements. But perhaps the most common shared characteristic is that almost all emotional disorders involve persistent negative thinking.

A review of existing studies using magnetic resonance imaging to study brain of white matter researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago describe common brain abnormalities found in multiple emotional disorders. Their findings are published in the journal NeuroImage :. Clinic

“This study provides important information on shared across multiple emotional disorders mechanisms, and we could provide biomarkers that can be used to diagnose faster these disorders,” says Dr. Scott Langenecker, associate professor of psychiatry and psychology professor the UIC College of Medicine and lead author of the paper. Those conditions, he said, can sometimes take many years to be accurately diagnosed.

The most common difference in the structure of white matter that the group Langenecker present in all emotional disorders looked-was interrupted in a region of the brain that connects different parts of the “network default mode” which is responsible for passive thoughts are not focused on a particular task. That area is the left superior longitudinal fasciculus. The superior longitudinal fasciculus, or SLF, also connects to the default mode network and the network of cognitive control, which is important in the thinking and planning task-based and tends to work alternating with network.The- default mode constant negative thoughts or reflections associated with most emotional disorders appears to be due to a hyperactive mode network default Langenecker said.

“If the part of the brain that helps rein in the network default mode is not as well connected through the SLF, this could explain why people with emotional disorders are so difficult to modulate or gain control your negative thoughts, “he said.

Researchers systematically searched the scientific literature for studies conducted imaging of the brain “diffusion tensor” in adults with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, social anxiety disorder obsessive-compulsive disorder , or PTSD, as well as healthy control participants. Thirty-seven studies met the criteria and included a combined total of 962 participants with emotional disorders and 892 healthy control subjects.

Then the researchers conducted a meta-analysis to determine what changes in the white matter may be common across multiple mood disorder, and that are unique to a disorder of particular mood. White matter includes nerve fibers called axons long transmit electrical signals.

diffusion tensor, or DTI, measures the degree to which water molecules move in one direction rather than spread randomly in all directions. Is provided “an indirect measure of the microstructure of white matter, and can provide information on the connectivity of different parts of the brain,” said Lisanne Jenkins, a postdoctoral researcher in psychiatry at the College of the UIC of Medicine and first author of the article.

“If one thinks of the white matter as Motorways of the brain, connecting all the different regions and networks,” Jenkins, an area with the movement of highly directional water, “she said could be a major highway, where all cars they are rapidly moving along with little traffic. ” An area with water movement unless directed could be “a two-lane road, with several exits and signs, maybe even some bumps, slowing traffic.”

The brain regions connected by these slower tracks “can not communicate as well as they would in a person when this road is more like a highway,” said Dr. Olusola Ajilore, associate professor of psychiatry at the School of Medicine UIC and co -author on paper.

In the 37 studies the researchers looked at, participants with emotional disorders had less directed water movement in their white matter compared with participants who had no emotional disorders.One of the most surprising findings it was Langenecker that people with obsessive-compulsive disorder shared by most people with brain abnormalities other emotional disorders.

“We would have expected … TOC a very different aspect of other emotional disorders, because the symptoms are so unique and different,” Langenecker said. “But this type of release we see how the TOC, which clearly has more in common with other emotional disorders than we think.”

The traditional diagnosis for OCD, he said, is recurrent thoughts about specific objects or thoughts tasks that belong to the world outside the car. Thoughts also can be directed internally.

“Other emotional disorders such as depression, social anxiety, panic disorder and-repetitive thoughts turn the car,” Ajilore said. “So our conclusion that OCD is more like the other emotional disorders makes sense, and can now be able to examine more in common between these disorders that could improve our treatment of them individually.”

disorder that stood out and the characteristics of the white matter with fewer other shared was the disorder, post-traumatic stress.

PTSD is triggered by a traumatic event and is to be remembered that event at inopportune moments, not unlike the repetitive negative thought in other emotional disorders. But people with PTSD had several areas of connectivity under the white matter were not seen in other emotional disorders, Langenecker said.

“While milder forms of trauma is common in other conditions, such as major depression or generalized anxiety, it is possible that the brain regions that we saw that were clearly affected the participants with PTSD have to do with experience of severe trauma or re-experiencing of the trauma “that said.In bipolar disorder characterized by periods of depression and mania, researchers observed decreased overall water-directionality on the right side of the brain, including the right SLF, the area that connects the default- mode network and the network of cognitive control.

“All emotional disorders were more interruptions in the left hemisphere, but for bipolar disorder, saw disruptions in the white matter, both the right and left sides of the brain,” said Langenecker.

Earlier studies of stroke patients have shown that abnormalities in the right hemisphere is associated with symptoms externally focused, as a hobby, while engaging the left hemisphere, that the current study is in most emotional disorders It was more often associated with symptoms focused inward, such as depression. Langenecker said his team bilateral changes observed in bipolar disorder may reflect vulnerability to depression and mania and anxiety.Alyssa Beard, Miranda Campbell, Melissa Lamar, Stewart Shankman and Dr. Alex Leow, all UIC, are the other co-authors on the paper.

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